Alcoholism – a disease that develops as a result of the systematic use of alcohol. It is characterized by an irresistible attraction to alcohol, a change of mentality and internal organs. The most important manifestations of chronic alcoholism are modified tolerance to alcohol, pathological attraction to intoxication, the occurrence after cessation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (Hangover). The development of alcoholism development proceeds under the influence of alcohol many external and internal factors. The main internal factors include genetic predisposition: it is known that the immediate relatives of alcoholics alcoholism risk is 7-10 times higher. In addition, recent studies in genetics have the genes, which predisposes damage to human disease Alcohol / The internal factors of chronic alcoholism is also a specific individual stock, which is characterized by mild suggestibility, the difficulty of social adaptation, sharp fluctuations in mood, etc. The factors of the environment, contributing to the development of chronic alcoholism include family and its traditions, social environment, level of culture.
Chronic alcoholism is due on the one hand – Narcotic effects of alcohol on the structure and processes of the central nervous system, on the other – the toxic influence of alcohol and its breakdown products on the organs and tissues. In the development of alcoholism there are three stages. The first stage of alcoholism raises formidable desire to use alcohol, while decreasing control over drunk. At this stage of alcoholism, vomiting as a protective reaction organism is absent. Increases the frequency of consumption of alcohol, lost a critical attitude toward drinking, apparent cases of retrograde amnesia: the patient does not remember the events of the last day, when he was in a state intoxication. The second stage of alcoholism alcohol craving becomes stronger and at the same time increases the tolerance (endurance) to alcohol.
Even small doses of alcohol can cause long-term binge. The main sign of the second stage of alcoholism – the development of withdrawal symptoms: chronic alcohol intoxication after a growing acceptance of a certain amount of alcohol. Abstinence syndrome is expressed in the trembling hands and fingers, eyelids, tongue, heartbeat, high blood pressure, sleep disorders, vomiting while trying to drink or eat anything. In some cases, may develop alcoholic psychosis. The third stage of alcoholism at this stage of tolerance to alcohol decreases, while its consumption is almost daily. There is a significant degradation of the individual, grow and become irreversible violations of the internal organs (alcoholic hepatitis, alcoholic encephalopathy, etc.).